• Species: Dipterocarpus littoralis Blume.
  • Synonim: –
  • Family: Dipterocarpaceae
  • Vernacular Name: Plahlar Nusakambangan
  • Conservation Status: Critically Endangered (CR B1ab(i,ii,iii,v); C1+2a(i); D ver.3.1. IUCN 2018)
  • Distribution: Endemic to Nusakambangan Island, Cilacap District, Central Java

Plahlar Nusakambangan is naturally grown only in Nusakambangan Island, especially in its western part. The natural habitat is in mixed lowland forests, on ridges, slopes and edges of stream, also on limestone substrate. Plahlar tree can reach 50 m high and more than 1 m in diameter. The bark is rather smooth or slightly cracked, gray with lenticels that are clearly visible. The stem produce resin as dammar and clearly visible when injured or cuted. Its distinctive features are the big leaves c. 16-25 (-52) cm long by 10-18 (-28) cm wide, then coriaceous and folded between nerves. It has 19-24 pairs of secondary vein. The fruit has five wings, consisting of two long wings (24 x 4 cm) and three short wings (10 x 6 cm). The nut is globose with short-small angular-groove.

As another Keruing (Dipterocarpus), Plahlar wood is a valuable timber for general construction. It is usually uses for housing and boat construction. Beside, the damar resin is used to putty the boats.

The natural population of Plahlar Nusakambangan is threatened by the uncontrolled illegal logging and encroachment of natural habitats. In addition, Plahlar habitat is also affected by the pressure of invasive species, Langkap (Arenga obtusifolia), where it covering the growth space for other tree species. Nowadays, the population of Plahlar Nusakambangan reaches an alarming level, the mature tree is estimated to be less than 250 individuals. In addition, trees with a diameter of more than 50 cm have been very difficult to find. With the threat that is still ongoing and if there is no immediate action for its conservation, then the extinction of the species is only a matter of time.


Hamidi, A. & Robiansyah, I. 2018. Dipterocarpus littoralis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T33376A125628315. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T33376A125628315.en. Downloaded on 01 March 2019.